The study of blood and blood-related diseases is known as hematology. Blood-related disorders include problems occurring with white blood cells, platelets, red blood cells, blood vessels, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and associated proteins. Let’s develop a deeper understanding of various blood-related disorders.
According to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, anemia is the most common blood disorder in America. A decrease in the production of red blood cells causes Anemia leading to a reduction in levels of oxygen during transportation. Unexplained weakness, fatigue, dizziness, chest pain, irregular heartbeats, pale skin, and headaches are some of the symptoms associated with anemia. Individuals suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, cancers, liver disease, and inflammatory bowel disease are at a greater risk of developing anemia. Following are the various types of anemia.
- Iron-deficiency anemia- The deficiency of iron can lead to severe problems, especially during pregnancy and childbirth.
- Vitamin-deficiency anemia- Pernicious anemia arises due to the deficiency of vitamin B12 (folic acid).
- Aplastic anemia- A condition in which bone marrow is unable to produce sufficient amounts of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
- Hemolytic anemia- Infections, autoimmune diseases, and congenital abnormalities cause hemolytic anemia wherein blood cells break up in the bloodstream or spleen.
- Sickle cell anemia- A condition in which red blood cells become sickle-shaped and clog the circulation flow.
Generally, blood cancers start in the bone marrow and affect the production and function of blood cells. There are three main types of blood cancers.
- Lymphoma- Lymphocytes are the cells that help in fighting infections. The body’s ability to fight infections is disturbed in lymphoma. Furthermore, it leads to the weakening of the immune system.
- Leukemia- Leukemia is the cancer of bone marrow leading to the abnormal production of white blood cells.
- Myeloma- Myeloma is the cancer of plasma cells that leads to the weakening of the immune system.
Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder that occurs when an individual lacks certain proteins (clotting factors). The common signs and symptoms of hemophilia include bleeding gums, blood from urine and stool, arboreal bruises, blurred vision, neck pain, pain in joints, and Irritability.
Blood disorders can affect the overall health of an individual. Anemia, blood clots, blood cancer, and bleeding disorders are the various abnormal conditions that arise due to the insufficient production of blood. Hematology is the study of blood and blood-related diseases. Anemia is a condition that arises due to a reduction in the number of red blood cells. Red blood cells carry an iron-pigment protein, hemoglobin, that is responsible for supplying oxygen to the lungs and tissues. Various types of anemias include Iron-deficiency anemia, pernicious anemia, hemolytic anemia, sickle cell anemia, and aplastic anemia. Maintaining a proper diet helps in improving health by supplying essential minerals and nutrients. Blood cancers can arise when there is an abnormal growth of cells of bone marrow, spleen, or lymph nodes. To treat blood-related disorders, healthcare professionals may prescribe medications such as erythropoietin injections, vitamin supplements, etc.