The prevention of pregnancy stands as a crucial part of modern practice. Also, it is of major public health interest. Method for controlling fertility is necessary and desired. It is known as barrier method. Traditionally, the method of birth control centered almost exclusively on the deterrence of unwanted conception. Now, the goal of recent birth control has shifted towards delivering more complete health to women. Primarily reproductive health, providing women with effective contraceptives. Considerably of on-contraceptive benefits and lifestyle advantages of various methods. There stands very little information to authorize a comparison about how effective the barriers would be. Therefore, the research on this matter continues.
Barrier contraceptives stand as devices that physically prevent the dissemination of sperm within the vagina. Similarly, it obstructs the access of spermatozoa to the upper genital tract. Again, there are numerous that lists the chemical as well as physical barrier methods of contraception. Also, these can be used independently or in combination.
Some physical barrier methods are:
- Male condom
- Female condom
- Cervical cap
- Contraceptive vaginal sponge
Some chemical methods are:
- Spermicidal gels
- Vaginal foams
We can barely mark concrete differences in the effectiveness of these barrier methods. We can even find some similarities. Also, these methods are associated with the sexual behavior of the user. As each sexual manner provides a particular situation. Then, the partner decides whether to use the method or not. Both partners should decide before encountering sexual intercourse. Therefore, the barrier method expects a necessity for motivation as well as cooperation from the partner.
You can rely on the fact that barrier methods are safe.
- Unlike IUD, you can utilize them as per your necessity.
- You can purchase most barriers without a prescription.
- Also, the barriers that need a prescription can be utilized multiple times.
- Sometimes spermicides and condoms exist unrestricted as well as available at the clinic very easily.
- Also, these non-hormonal barriers can be used by everyone.
- Again, you need not have to worry about breastfeeding while accepting them.
- Moreover, there appears no impact on your other health problems. For instance, blood pressure.
- These are extremely reasonable than hormonal birth control methods.
- Furthermore, condoms offer bed protection against STDs during P-in-V intercourse, anal sex as well as oral sex.
- Diaphragms perform 80-90% beneficial while preventing pregnancy. Also, when you use a spermicide along with the diaphragm, the effective percentage increases. As it kills sperm on contact.
- The first and foremost is to remember to use them before sexual intercourse.
- There remains a lot of complaints about condoms that interfere with the sensation.
- Again, various people are allergic to spermicides. As a result, condoms, diaphragms, and cervical caps regimes.
- Although they assure effectiveness yet they still lack efficiency from the non-barrier method.
With the correct and consistent use of barrier methods effectiveness in STDs as well as HIV stands enhanced. Also, recently these methods are overlooked. Even not prescribed. Hence, people frequently fail to use them and change to alternate methods. Sometimes they abandon using them with no contraception that leads to more disappointments. On the contrary, some of the barrier methods are more acceptable by the users as they provide more privacy. Particularly the women who do not want to reveal their sexual activity.
It is also helpful for women who do not want to consult a doctor. Overall, the preferences of the users are critical considerations recommending a contraceptive method. Because obtaining the correct use of these barrier methods can keep you safe from STD transmission. Again, the barrier methods assure you with the prevention of infertility. Sometimes we counter the occurrence of TSS (toxic shock syndrome) that is rare. It is however associated with the diaphragm and sponge as researched.
The bottom line
Use them! If you are planning for sexual intercourse, use them to prevent the above-mentioned issues. As you can see, all the methods are most effective. Not only effective but also affordable birth control measures. Barrier methods have come a long way from the past 50 years and science made them informative as well as easy to utilize. The most common scenery in sexual intercourse is that the male is responsible for organizing condoms. While the women are responsible for not getting pregnant out of it. However, they should stimulate both to protect themselves against STDs. Contraception methods are available for both sexes.
Aids refers to Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is caused by HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus). Aids is a sexually transmitted infection. It can spread by having multiple sexual partners, from pregnant mother to the fetus during childbirth, or from mother to child by breastfeeding. The disease can be detected by an Enzyme-linked immunodeficiency sorbent assay test, nucleic acid test, and antigen screening test.
How Does The Virus Enter The Body?
The human immunodeficiency virus can spread by seminal or vaginally secretions of the infected person. It enters the person through unprotected coitus, anal sex, or oral intercourse. The virus can also enter by the usage of contaminated needles and syringes. Infected mothers are carriers of Aids as the virus can pass to the developing fetus through the amniotic fluid and blood. Many hospitals restrict the transmission of HIV during blood transfusions by detecting the presence of HIV antibodies. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome can be transmitted through infected tattoos and piercing needles as well.
Signs and Symptoms For Detecting AIDS
Acute or Primary Infection Stage
Initially, when the virus enters the body of a person, it produces symptoms similar to flu. The symptoms include a fever that can last from several months to years, headaches that reduce concentration levels, lethargy, fatigue and tiredness, swelling of the lymph nodes. The sudden appearance of rashes on the body, development of ulcers in the mouth and genital region, chronic diarrhea, oral thrush, sore throat, and pain in the muscles and joints.
Clinical Latent Infection Stage
The human immunodeficiency virus is present in the body during this stage but fails to show symptoms in certain patients. This stage can last for several years but does not imply that the virus is expelled out of the body.
Presence Of Heightened Symptoms In The Final Stage
The virus weakens the immune system of the body by attacking the CD4 glycoprotein. This is present on the surface of T-lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages of the body. The virus enters the CD4 cells and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase enzymes to produce multiple copies of its kind. They cause a progressive decrease in the number of T-helper cells leading to the weakening of the immune system. In such a case, the person shows chronic symptoms including a rapid increase in the body temperature, fatigue, and dizziness that restricts the infected individual to carry out day-to-day activities, sudden weight loss, nausea, vomiting, the presence of shingles, and pneumonia.
According to the Centre for Disease Control And Prevention (CDC), the virus at the final stage badly affects the immune system of the people. This makes it prone to opportunistic infections. Excessive sweat, chills, prolonged unusual lesions, unexplained exhaustion while working, persistent skin rashes, swollen lymphatic glands, and intermittent fever are some of the symptoms that occur in the final stage of infection. Yeast and bacterial infections are common in infected women.
Look For These Signs
Some other signs and symptoms of Aids include bleeding from anus, vagina, or mouth, progressive lack of control over bodily reflexes and voluntary muscular movement, swelling in the throat, armpit, or groin, presence of bruises, the occurrence of deep and dry cough, and deposition of white coat on the tongue.
Development of itchy, red, painful rashes on the face, hands, and feet are common in Aids along with bumps on the skin. HIV fever is persistent and recurrent for an initial three to four weeks in the infected person. Aids fever is generally accompanied by tiredness and swelling in various body parts. The fever may range from 99.8°F to 100.8°F in infected individuals. One of the major symptoms to screen out Aids in the early stage is the presence of swollen lymph glands in the throat, armpit, and groin region of the infected person. Infected women may experience problems like vaginal candidiasis and tuberculosis.
In certain cases, depression, memory loss, mental confusion, and various neurological disorders have also been detected as signs of Aids. Aids cause increased breakouts of other sexually transmitted infections such as human papillomavirus (genital warts), gonorrhea, and syphilis. It may also lead to pelvic inflammatory diseases that cause infections in the uterus and fallopian tubes.
Infections That Commonly Occur During Aids
As mentioned, Aids causes vaginal candidiasis that leads to inflammation of the vaginal parts. It is a potential cause of a fungal infection- pneumocystis pneumonia. As the virus weakens the immune system, the infected person can catch cytomegalovirus. It causes damage to the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and eyes.
The virus causing Aids can only transmit from the infected person through fluids. Such as blood, semen, breastplate, anal mucous, and fluids of the vagina. It does not spread through the air, touching the infected person, or possible exposure of sweat, tears, sneeze, cough, and urine of the infected person. Also, only limited fluids can cause potential transmission of Aids. Looking for early symptoms such as fever, diarrhea, fatigue, swelling in lymph nodes, and other signs can help in the early treatment of the disease.
The relationship between herpes viruses and humans may have been around for thousands of years. Herpesviruses have a unique structure with four layers: a nucleus containing a large DNA genome and two strands bound by icosahedral capsid. The capsid is surrounded by a protein coating called the tegument. It is enclosed in an envelope containing a lipid bilayer that carries glycoprotein. Any of the several herpesvirus infections are characterized by blisters or rashes on skin or mucous membranes.
Herpes genitalis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is a DNA virus with two serotypes: herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Both of these types can cause sores on the inside and back of your vagina, cervix, anus, penis, skin, buttocks, inner thighs, lips, mouth, throat, and it is rare for your eyes. HSV-1 oral herpes can spread from the mouth to the vagina through oral sex. This is why some cases of herpes genitalis are due to HSV-1.
Herpes is non-lethal and usually does not cause serious health problems. While herpes outbreaks can be irritating and painful. There are ways to treat herpes, and precautions to make sure you do not give herpes to anyone you have sex with.
HSV-1 (Oral Herpes)
It is usually responsible for cold sores and fever blisters around the mouth and face. Children often get HSV-1 from close contact with an infected adult person.
The following interactions can cause HSV-1:
- by eating in the same utensils
- sharing lipstick or lip balm
The virus spreads very quickly when an outbreak occurs.
What are the signs and symptoms of HSV-1?
Most blisters appear on the lips or mouth. Sometimes blisters form on the face or tongue. These are the common places to get oral herpes. The blisters will leak fluid into the sores. After about four to six days, the sores will start to crack and heal. However, some people show no symptoms at all.
Preventive measures for HSV-1 (Oral Herpes)
- Apply sunscreen or lip balm containing zinc oxide to your lips regularly.
- Apply a lotion to prevent the lips from becoming too dry.
- Avoid direct contact with herpes sores.
- Wash items such as towels in boiling water after each use.
- Do not share utensils, threads, glasses, or other items if someone suffering from herpes
Testing for HSV-1?
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), blood test, or biopsy can confirm HSV-1. PCR is a popular test to detect herpes infections. If you think you may have a herpes infection, a home test may be the easiest option for you. If you have the herpes virus and its antibodies, it can be found in a blood test, even if you have no symptoms. However, the only time a virus may not be detected in a test (after contraction) is if it is tested early.
HSV-2 (genital Herpes)
Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection is widespread and almost exclusively sexually transmitted, causing genital herpes. A person can contact herpes 2 infections during sexual contact or skin-to-skin contact with a person with genital HSV-2 infection.
What are the signs & symptoms of HSV-2?
Symptoms can begin about two to 12 days after exposure to the virus. HSV-2 causes itching and sores in the genital area. However, at times you may not have any signs or symptoms of genital herpes. An infected person does not always have visible sores. Sores can develop when blisters rupture and come out or bleed. Sores can make it difficult to urinate. During the first rash, you may have flu-like symptoms such as swollen lymph nodes in your grip, head, muscles, and fever.
Preventive measures of HSV-2 (Genital Herpes)
Suggestions for the prevention of genital herpes are similar to preventing other sexually transmitted infections. Avoid having sex. or Limit sexual contact. In short, you can:
- Use a latex condom during all sexual intercourse
- Avoid having sex if any infected partner.
- Be in a long-term relationship with one person who does not have an STD (e.g., a partner who has been tested and has the negative test).
Testing for HSV-2?
An HSV-2 biopsy can help determine if you have got herpes. HSV-2 tests are usually are only for genital sores. Tests can even be performed using other kinds of samples, like bodily fluid, blood, urine, or tears. To determine if the sores are due to HSV-2, a variety of tests are out there.
For many couples, herpes is not a big deal. Try to talk about it. It is better to have a conversation calmly HSV is a common virus. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Trusted Source, about 67% of people worldwide have HSV-1, and 11% have HSV-2. A Home Herpes Test is an efficient way for those who are uncomfortable to discuss sensitive topics such as these in-person with their medical providers who do not agree with a non-infectious diagnosis. Using a new male or female condom or rubber dental dam every time you have vaginal or oral sex will reduce the risk of herpes transmission. While having sex with multiple partners, it is even more important to use condoms and regular STI tests. If you have genital herpes you shall test for other sexually transmitted infections, as well, to ensure safety.
What does Chlamydia mean? Have you ever come across this word? Well, Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacteria, that causes Chlamydia in human beings, a sexually transmitted infection.
This disease does not show any symptoms at its early stage. But, if not treated, it can cause severe health problems. Thus it requires regular treatment with the guidance of the doctor. Due to no symptoms at an early stage, the infection spreads easily. This means that the infection passes to the sexual partners with no knowledge about it. According to a survey, 75% of women and 50% of men infected do not experience any symptoms at the early stages.
Chlamydia is diagnosed should be treated as soon as possible because they show symptoms late. Generally, they show the symptoms within 1 to 3 weeks after contact. Women and men may experience different symptoms, which are:
Symptoms in Men
- Swelling and pain around the testicles
- Cloudy or clear discharge (yellow or green) from the tip of your penis
- Burning sensation while urination
- Itching and burning around your penis opening
Symptoms in Women
- Vaginal discharge, with odor
- Painful periods
- Pain while having sex
- Burning or itching around the vagina
- Lower abdominal pain and fever
Apart from these, it can affect other parts of the body. Such as the anus being discomfort and discharge, redness, pain, and discharge in the eyes, and more.
How is Chlamydia caused?
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection and having sex without a condom, and unprotected oral sex might lead to transmission. Even touching the genitals together transmits the infection. Newborn babies might acquire Chlamydia during their month from their infected mother. However, most pregnancy tests include a Chlamydia test. Often, people get Chlamydia infections when they have sex with multiple partners.
Treatment for Chlamydia
Chlamydia sounds like a huge bacterial infection. However, it is easy to treat. Thus, you need not panic. Being bacterial, it can be cured with antibiotics. The test for Chlamydia will ensure the level and dosage for the treatment or antibiotics. The doctor will ensure the full diagnosis and treatment of the infection from the body through proper testing and treatment.
Apart from the medicines, it is important to refrain from having sex during the treatment time. It is possible to be affected by Chlamydia again, if exposed, no matter if you have been treated for the previous one. You should test yourselves every 3 months after the treatment for the disease. Also, try to avoid sex for one week of the final dose for the infection. Since Chlamydia can be cured, it is important to stay protected and prevent yourself from recurrence.
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection. It passes through one person to the other through sexual contact. They do not show any danger or symptom at their early occurring stage, but one might experience serious medical complications if they are not treated. However, it is important to have a test for Chlamydia, as it is a growing concept. Whenever you experience any suspecting moment, get your tests and start treating it. You should have regular tests for sexually transmitted infections with the new partner. While having sex, and oral sex always use proper protection.
Sexually transmitted disease (STD) means the disease that is transmitted from one person to another through sexual contact. Most STDs affect both men and women, but in many cases, the health problems they bring can be very difficult for women. STDs do not always cause symptoms or can only cause mild symptoms. So, it is possible to have an infection but not know it. Also, if there are symptoms, they may include an abnormal discharge from the vagina or anus, painful or normal urination, redness and itching in the vagina, anal itching, pain, or bleeding, abdominal pain, fever.
If you have sex, you should talk to your healthcare provider about your STD risk and whether you need a test. This is very important because most STDs do not usually cause symptoms.
Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by viruses. People with chlamydia often have no external symptoms in the early stages. Chlamydia can cause vaginal discharge. It can be like red or mucus. Sex without a condom and having unprotected oral sex are the main ways to become infected with chlamydia.
Symptoms in men
- a burning sensation during urination
- lower abdominal pain
- pain in the testicles
Symptoms in women
- painful sex
- vaginal discharge
- a burning sensation during urination
- lower abdominal pain
Test for chlamydia
The most effective diagnostic test for chlamydia is to swipe the vagina in women and test urine in men. Results may take 24 – 48 hours. The doctor’s office should call to discuss the results. If the test comes back positive, the next appointment and treatment options will be discussed.
Gonorrhea is passed from one person to another through oral, anal, or vaginal sex without a condom or any other form of contraception. The best protection against sexually transmitted infections is condom use. However, some people who get gonorrhea have never had any visible symptoms.
Symptoms in men
- high frequency or urgency urination
- red (or leaky) discharge from the penis (white, yellow, beige, or green)
- swelling or redness when the penis opens
- swelling or pain in the testicles
Symptoms in women
- vaginal discharge (liquid, creamy, or green)
- pain or burning sensation while urinating
- urge to urinate more often
- hard times or spots
- Sore throat
- pain during sex
Test for gonorrhea
Health professionals can diagnose gonorrhea in several ways. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention recommends an annual test for gonorrhea for all sexually active women under the age of 25.
Both men and women should be tested for gonorrhea symptoms. If you are a woman, a sample can be taken from your cervix. Your healthcare provider will use a plastic or metal device called a speculum to open the vagina so that the cervix can be seen. If you are a man, doctors take swabs from the opening of your urethra. You can do some gonorrhea tests with a home STD test kit.
It does not mean that sex is the only way STDs are transmitted. If left untreated, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), also referred to as STIs, can cause serious health problems. Do not assume that your doctor will automatically diagnose all your sexually transmitted infections during your annual physical or sexual examination. All pregnant women should get tested for HIV and hepatitis B. Many doctors do not regularly diagnose STDs.
It is important to ask your doctor for an STD test. Ask what tests they plan to take and why. This is because taking care of your sexual health is not something you are ashamed of. If you are worried about a particular disease or symptom, talk to your doctor about it. The more reliable you are, the better the treatment you will receive. These “hidden” STDs can still become a problem for people’s health. So, anyone who is sexually active should get tested. Once you order your test, you will receive an email confirming your test and your chosen clinic.