The prevention of pregnancy stands as a crucial part of modern practice. Also, it is of major public health interest. Method for controlling fertility is necessary and desired. It is known as barrier method. Traditionally, the method of birth control centered almost exclusively on the deterrence of unwanted conception. Now, the goal of recent birth control has shifted towards delivering more complete health to women. Primarily reproductive health, providing women with effective contraceptives. Considerably of on-contraceptive benefits and lifestyle advantages of various methods. There stands very little information to authorize a comparison about how effective the barriers would be. Therefore, the research on this matter continues.
Barrier contraceptives stand as devices that physically prevent the dissemination of sperm within the vagina. Similarly, it obstructs the access of spermatozoa to the upper genital tract. Again, there are numerous that lists the chemical as well as physical barrier methods of contraception. Also, these can be used independently or in combination.
Some physical barrier methods are:
- Male condom
- Female condom
- Cervical cap
- Contraceptive vaginal sponge
Some chemical methods are:
- Spermicidal gels
- Vaginal foams
We can barely mark concrete differences in the effectiveness of these barrier methods. We can even find some similarities. Also, these methods are associated with the sexual behavior of the user. As each sexual manner provides a particular situation. Then, the partner decides whether to use the method or not. Both partners should decide before encountering sexual intercourse. Therefore, the barrier method expects a necessity for motivation as well as cooperation from the partner.
You can rely on the fact that barrier methods are safe.
- Unlike IUD, you can utilize them as per your necessity.
- You can purchase most barriers without a prescription.
- Also, the barriers that need a prescription can be utilized multiple times.
- Sometimes spermicides and condoms exist unrestricted as well as available at the clinic very easily.
- Also, these non-hormonal barriers can be used by everyone.
- Again, you need not have to worry about breastfeeding while accepting them.
- Moreover, there appears no impact on your other health problems. For instance, blood pressure.
- These are extremely reasonable than hormonal birth control methods.
- Furthermore, condoms offer bed protection against STDs during P-in-V intercourse, anal sex as well as oral sex.
- Diaphragms perform 80-90% beneficial while preventing pregnancy. Also, when you use a spermicide along with the diaphragm, the effective percentage increases. As it kills sperm on contact.
- The first and foremost is to remember to use them before sexual intercourse.
- There remains a lot of complaints about condoms that interfere with the sensation.
- Again, various people are allergic to spermicides. As a result, condoms, diaphragms, and cervical caps regimes.
- Although they assure effectiveness yet they still lack efficiency from the non-barrier method.
With the correct and consistent use of barrier methods effectiveness in STDs as well as HIV stands enhanced. Also, recently these methods are overlooked. Even not prescribed. Hence, people frequently fail to use them and change to alternate methods. Sometimes they abandon using them with no contraception that leads to more disappointments. On the contrary, some of the barrier methods are more acceptable by the users as they provide more privacy. Particularly the women who do not want to reveal their sexual activity.
It is also helpful for women who do not want to consult a doctor. Overall, the preferences of the users are critical considerations recommending a contraceptive method. Because obtaining the correct use of these barrier methods can keep you safe from STD transmission. Again, the barrier methods assure you with the prevention of infertility. Sometimes we counter the occurrence of TSS (toxic shock syndrome) that is rare. It is however associated with the diaphragm and sponge as researched.
The bottom line
Use them! If you are planning for sexual intercourse, use them to prevent the above-mentioned issues. As you can see, all the methods are most effective. Not only effective but also affordable birth control measures. Barrier methods have come a long way from the past 50 years and science made them informative as well as easy to utilize. The most common scenery in sexual intercourse is that the male is responsible for organizing condoms. While the women are responsible for not getting pregnant out of it. However, they should stimulate both to protect themselves against STDs. Contraception methods are available for both sexes.
What are STIs?
STIs refer to sexually transmitted infections that are acquired through sexual contact. They are also known as Reproductive tract infections or venereal diseases. AIDS, Gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes and warts, chlamydiosis, and hepatitis-B are some commonly known STDs. Bacteria or virus that causes STIs can be transferred from person to person hence, it is an infectious disease.
Transmission of STIs
STIs are usually transmitted by sexual contact that includes vaginal, anal, or oral sex. However, some STIs can spread by non-sexual methods, i.e, by blood and blood products, or by reusing the needle of injections. Organisms that are carriers of the diseases may pass disease from one person to another in blood, semen, vaginal, and other bodily fluids. Sometimes these infections can pass from mother to infant during pregnancy or childbirth. In addition, infections or diseases may be passed on during unprotected sex with an infected partner.
Symptoms of STIs
In most cases, symptoms are not visible earlier but symptoms vary as the disease progresses. Here are some common symptoms-
- Unusual Vaginal bleeding
- Pain during sex.
- Lower abdominal pain
- Rashes over the hands or feet.
- The smell in vaginal discharge
- Discharge from the penis.
- Painful or burning urination
- Sores or bumps may appear on the genital, or oral area.
Diagnosis of STIs
24/7 labs provide you with approximately 10 tests for STIs.
- Basic Kit: Chlamydia &Gonorrhea At-Home Test – $ 59.00
- Gonorrhoea- It is a sexual infection caused by a bacterium called Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, that infects male and female both. It mostly affects the urethra, rectum, or throat. Testing involves urine samples. -$80.00 – $89.00
- a/b HIV-It destroys the vital cells that fight against disease and infections and hence weakens the immune system. Getting tested can help you to get assurance. Testing may involve either the blood, urine, or oral fluid. – $50.00 – $60.00
- Chlamydia- It is a common sexual disease that is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia Trachomatis. This disease is mostly asymptomatic but has a higher risk of passing the disease to another person. Testing involves a simple urine test and is painless in both men and women. – $80.00 – $89.00
- Comprehensive sexual health panel- This panel tests for the nine most common sexually transmitted diseases:
- Herpes 1
- Herpes II
- Hepatitis B
- Hepatitis C
$228.00 – $318.00
- Hepatitis B surface antigen- Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes hepatitis, a contagious liver infection. Its testing involves the collection of blood samples. – $49.00 – $50.00
- Herpes- Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 cause STI herpes. It leads to genital pain and sores. The most common test used to diagnose the disease is the PCR blood test and it is very accurate. HSV 1 is an oral STI whereas HSV 2 is a genital STI. – $79.00 – $89.00
- Sexual Health panels- $139.00 – $219.00
- Syphilis- Treponema pallidum causes syphilis that can lead to long-term complications if left untreated. Testing involves the collection of a blood sample. – $42.00 – $49.00
- Trichomonas- Trichomonas vaginalis, a parasite causes trichomoniasis. Women get more affected than men. Testing involves a urine sample. – $159.00 – $169.00.
Many effective treatments are currently available:-
- Three bacterial STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and syphilis) and one parasitic STI (trichomoniasis) can be easily cured by effective single-dose regimens of antibiotics.
- The most effective medications available for herpes and HIV, are antivirals that can modulate the course of the disease but cannot cure the disease.
- Antiviral medications can help to fight the virus of Hepatitis B and slow damage to the liver.
Various bacteria, viruses, and parasites cause venereal diseases. Untreated sexual infections may lead to dangerous health problems. Most STDs are asymptomatic. So, it is good to have tests regularly if you are sexually active. So, to prevent the infection, everyone should know about the proper use of condoms, and not keeping monogamous relationships. If you feel any symptoms of the genitals infections, you must get tested. All STIs are not deadly such as Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Trichomoniasis, and Chlamydia can be cured by antibiotics. However, HPV, Herpes, and HIV cannot be cured fully. Also, you should not be shy of consulting your doctor if you are sexually active. In addition, you should visit your doctor regularly regardless of your age if you are sexually active.
Any infection that spreads through sexual contact is termed as sexually transmitted infections or venereal diseases (VD). Chlamydia, trichomoniasis, HIV, herpes, gonorrhea, hepatitis, etc are some of the examples of STIs. In this blog, you’ll find information about trichomoniasis disease.
Meaning Of Trichomonas
According to the Centers for Disease Control And Prevention (CDC), trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection that is caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. The parasite transmits from an infected person to another individual via sexual intercourse or shared sex toys. The growth of parasites in females affects the vagina and urethra. Males experience infections in the penis. Trichomonas bacteria can not transfer through hugging, kissing, sitting on similar toilet seats, or sharing towels or dishes. Genital contact is the only path through which bacteria pass.
Trichomonas vaginalis is an anaerobic protozoan parasite that causes symptomatic infections in males and females. It is responsible for urogenital infections leading to a frothy greenish vaginal or penile discharge. Preterm delivery, mortality, and severe changes in body weight are the extreme complications of Trichomonas vaginalis. The protozoan lacks mitochondria, essential enzymes, and cytochromes required for its survival. Trichomonas vaginalis causes severe damage to the vaginal lining that makes females susceptible to an HIV infection.
According to the American Sexual Health Association (ASHA), only 30% of people report symptoms of trichomoniasis. Others do not report any symptoms. Generally, the symptoms of trich are visible after 7 to 28 days of infection.
Symptoms Of Trichomoniasis In Females
- Unpleasant smelling vaginal discharge usually white, gray, yellow, or green
- Itching and burning sensation in the vagina
- Frequent urges to urinate
- Vaginal bleeding or spotting
- Pain while urinating or having sex
- Redness, swelling, and inflammation of the genital area
Symptoms Of Trichomoniasis In Males
- Pain and irritation in the penis
- Frequent discharge from the penis
- Pain and burning sensation while urinating or ejaculating
- Pain and discomfort while urinating
- Frequent urges to urinate
Who’s At Risk?
Individuals who have multiple sexual partners are at a greater risk of acquiring trichomoniasis. Any person with a history of other sexually transmitted infections is more likely to acquire trichomoniasis. Sexual intercourse without condoms makes the person prone to catching the parasite. Previous trichomoniasis transmissions make a person more susceptible to develop trichomoniasis.
Treatment For Trichomoniasis
Antibiotics such as metronidazole and tinidazole are helpful to treat trichomoniasis. Avoid drinking alcohol awaking antibiotics for trichomoniasis as it may lead to severe nausea and vomiting. Individuals should get tested if their sexual partners have been diagnosed with trichomoniasis. Above all, avoid any type of sexual contact until the infection is treated.
Complications Associated With Trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis can cause severe damage to the vaginal lining making females more susceptible to an HIV infection. Similarly, trich can also lead to other sexually transmitted infections such as gonorrhea, bacterial vaginosis, and chlamydia. If left untreated, it may cause pelvic inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, it may block the fallopian tube due to scar tissue. Trichomoniasis can also cause infertility and severe pelvic pain. A pregnant woman who is infected with trich may deliver a premature child or child having a lower weight. The child may also acquire trichomoniasis through the birth canal. However, the condition is rare.
Prevention Of Trichomoniasis
To prevent trichomoniasis, it is advisable to use latex condoms. For instance, condoms help to prevent the transfer of parasites through the genital fluid by covering either the cervix (female condoms) or penis (male condoms).
Douching is a method in which females clean the vagina with vinegar and water. Females use douching to change the vaginal odor. Females must avoid douching as douching can leach out healthy and helpful bacterias.
Effective communication is required with sexual partners about history, other sexual partners, and potential risk of any STI. Therefore, limit the number of sexual partners as having multiple sexual partners amplifies the risk of catching an STI.
Testing Of Trichomoniasis
Vaginal fluid is collected from females to detect the presence of the Trichomonas vaginalis parasite. In addition, a urine sample is taken from males. The samples are tested under an electron microscope to detect whether the parasite is present or not. Rapid antigen tests and nucleic tests are also for testing trichomoniasis.
Trichomonasvaginalis is an anaerobic protozoan parasite that causes a sexually transmitted infection named trichomoniasis. The parasite transmits from an infected person to another individual via sexual intercourse. In addition, the signs and symptoms associated with trichomoniasis in females include the presence of unpleasant smelling vaginal discharge, itching and burning sensation in the vagina, vaginal bleeding, vaginal pain while urinating or having sex, and redness, swelling, and inflammation of the genital area. The symptoms in males are penile discharge, frequent urges to urinate, discomfort while urinating, and having coitus. Therefore, people must get tested.
Infections that transmit from infected individuals to other people during coitus or intercourse are called sexually transmitted infections (STIs). There are various types of STIs including Chlamydia, Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Trichomoniasis, Genital herpes, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Human papillomavirus, Hepatitis B, etc. Some of the common symptoms of STIs include frequent discharge from the penis, constant itching and irritation in the vagina, blisters and rashes in genitals, severe abdominal pain, sore throat, irregular menstrual cycle, and redness near the anus.
Aids refers to Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that is caused by the Human immunodeficiency virus that spreads by seminal or vaginal secretions of the infected person. It can only transmit through fluids such as blood, semen, anal mucous, and fluids of the vagina. HIV attacks on the CD4 glycoproteins found on the surface of T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and monocytes lowering the immunity of the body. T-lymphocytes act as HIV manufacturing machines producing a massive amount of foreign virus that hampers the proper functioning of the immune system.
Signs and symptoms
Symptoms of AIDS include prolonged fever, unusual lesions, unexplained tiredness, persistent skin rashes, development of ulcers in the mouth and genital regions, oral thrush, sore throat, and chronic diarrhea.
AIDS discloses by ELISA test, antibody test, and nucleic acid testing.
In nucleic acid tests, they take blood from the patient’s vein in a sample test tube. It involves the preparation of the sample using the patient’s blood in the laboratory. Amplification of RNA using TMA- transcription-mediated amplification, and detection of HIV in the amplicon. The test gives a statistical report of the number of viruses present in the infected person.
ELIZA test- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is another test to detect the presence of HIV by detecting the existence of antibodies to the virus. In this test, the blood sample or saliva of the patient is collected and tested further by culturing it into a petri dish.
Syphilis is an STI by the bacteria Treponema pallidum that enters the mucous membrane through cuts and abrasions on the skin. The bacteria enter the body in a dormant stage and have the potential to become active after years of transmission. This, therefore, causes damage to the heart, brain, and other accessory organs.
Signs and symptoms
Syphilis infection can be recognized by monitoring the presence of bumps or tumors on genitals, dementia, development of sores in oral, anal, and genital areas, painless ulcers, headaches impairing concentration, and vaginal discharge.
Various tests to detect Syphilis infection include
VDRL test- It stands for Venereal disease research laboratory test that involves collecting and testing blood samples and spinal fluids of the patient to detect the presence of antibodies against the bacterium.
The rapid immunochromatographic test requires the use of nitrocellulose strips along with antigen sites. If the sample of blood, plasma, or serum of the patient contains the bacteria, it will coagulate on the antigen site of the nitrocellulose strip.
Rapid plasma reagin test is another laboratory test to screen out syphilis bacteria. The blood sample of the patient is collected and diagnosed to detect the presence of non-specific antibodies.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a bacteria responsible for an STI with the name, gonorrhea. Oral sex, anal sex, and unprotected vaginal sex can transmit the infection from moist areas of the infected person. Therefore the moist areas such as the urethra, vagina, eyes, throat, and anus.
Signs and symptoms
Yeast candidiasis, bacterial infections, watery discharge, and increased discharge in periods. Along with pain during coitus, extreme abdominal pain, and frequent urination are some of the symptoms of Gonorrhoea.
One method to detect the appearance of gonorrhea-causing bacterium is by collecting and reviewing fluids from genitals- penis, rectum, and vagina.
If the patient involves in oral or anal sex, swab test samples from the throat and rectum also detect gonorrhea. The urine or swab samples help to screen out the DNA of the bacteria.
Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria is responsible for the transmission of Chlamydia. Hence, the disease may occur asymptomatic that may lead to serious health problems in the latter part of life.
Signs and symptoms
Chlamydia is a curable disease that causes an elevation in vaginal secretion, abdominal pain during intercourse, swelling in testicles, and irregular bleeding in the infected individual.
NAAT – It refers to the nucleic acid amplification test that detects the genetic material of the bacteria. This is by amplifying it on a cultured medium. A vaginal sample or urinal sample of the patient is of use in this diagnostic test.
However, a swab test is another diagnostic measure to detect the existence of trachomatis bacteria. In this, the doctor cultures fluid from the cervical to detect the presence of antigens.
The causes of sexually transmitted infections are bacterias, viruses, and parasites. These can enter through the genitals because of unprotected coitus, sharing needles, or through blood transfusions. Creating awareness among the people to use condoms, not keeping monogamous relationships, prevents infection. Testing as soon as there are unusual symptoms in the genitals infections also prevents infections. Not all STIs are deadly such as Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Trichomoniasis, and Chlamydia which are curable by antibiotics. However, HPV, Herpes, and HIV are not fully curable diseases.