Types Of Heart Diseases: Signs And Symptoms

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), heart diseases are one of the prime causes of death. Heart diseases can arise by infection due to viruses, abnormal heart rhythm, irregular heartbeats, and weakening of the cardiac muscles. So, here is a list of several heart diseases and the common symptoms.

Arrhythmia 

A healthy heartbeat is determined by counting the number of heartbeats in one minute. The number of heartbeats can increase if a person is involved in athletic activity. Cardiac arrhythmia is a condition wherein a person experiences an irregular heartbeat. The person suffering from this condition can experience bradycardia (heartbeats above 100 bpm), tachycardia (heartbeats below 60 bpm), and fibrillation. So, severe forms of arrhythmia are cardiac stroke and heart failure. The condition arises due to the problems in the transportation of action potentials arising from cardiac cells. Hence, excessive alcoholism, smoking, hyperthyroidism, certain herbal supplements, and coffee consumption make the person prone to cardiac arrhythmia.

Signs and symptoms

The common signs and symptoms associated with cardiac arrhythmia include heart palpitations, changes in blood pressure, and difficulty in breathing. Fainting, mental confusion, acute chest pain, and lightheadedness too. An electrical device, known as an electrocardiogram measure the heartbeat.

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

There are four coronary arteries namely the right coronary artery, left coronary artery, left circumflex artery, and left anterior descending artery present on the heart. The primary function of these arteries is to supply adequate oxygen and blood to the heart. Vascular heart injury wherein the flow of blood through the arteries is impaired is referred to as coronary artery disease. The risk factors that are the potential causes of CAD are high blood pressure, obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea. High blood cholesterol, excessive alcohol intake, sedentary lifestyle, and hyperglycemia as well. Therefore, this heart disease can be identifiable by electrocardiogram, CT scan, echocardiogram, and cardiac catheterization.

Signs and symptoms

Angina (pain in the chest), feelings of heaviness in the heart, burning sensations, squeezing of the chest, unexplained vomiting, nausea, and development of arrhythmia. Excessive sweating, shortness of breath, and pain in the arms, back, and shoulders are also some of the common symptoms of coronary artery disease.

Atherosclerosis 

Another commonly detected heart condition is atherosclerosis. In this disease, the arteries narrow down due to the deposition of plaque. Here, plaque refers to the accumulation of calcium, fat, and cholesterol in the arteries. These depositions lead to a shortage of adequate blood and oxygen to the heart and tissues. The causes of atherosclerosis include high cholesterol, consumption of unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, old age, high blood pressure, smoking, and diabetes. Atherosclerosis is detectable by blood tests to check the cholesterol levels of an individual, electrocardiogram, cardiac angiography, doppler ultrasound, and ankle-brachial index.

Signs and symptoms

The common signs and symptoms are a pain in the chest, weakening of muscles of limbs, shortness of breath and abdominal pain. Along with prolonging wound healing, perspiration, numbness of limbs, trouble in speaking, vision, confusion, and severe headaches.

Congenital Heart Diseases 

Abnormalities in the heart present since birth in an individual are termed congenital heart diseases. There can be defects in heart valves that may hamper the flow of blood or can lead to the leaking of blood in congenital heart disease. The heart walls and blood vessels-arteries and veins affect by this disorder. Therefore, diagnosis for which is through MRI scan, CT scan, and echocardiogram.

Signs and symptoms

Since, the common signs and symptoms associating with congenital heart disease are changing of colour of skin, fingers and toes to bluish-black. Hence, reduction in body weight, difficulty in feeding the baby, shortness of breath, abnormal heart rhythm, fatigue, and acute chest pain also.

Treating Heart Diseases 

Sedentary lifestyles, inactivity, and obesity majorly cause heart diseases. To some extent, individuals can keep their hearts healthy with the following methods.

  1. Regular exercise and a healthy balanced diet can be excellent ways to prevent heart diseases. The diet should be rich in fruits, vegetables, low in sodium and cholesterol, and minerals. Reducing the consumption of alcohol and smoking can help in lowering the risk of heart diseases.
  2. Medications such as antibiotics are authorized to patients with the complexity of heart disease. In severe cases, medical surgery is necessary to cure the patient. For instance, treatment for chronic atherosclerosis is by inserting a stent in the arteries to enhance blood flow.

Conclusion 

120 systolic and 80 diastolic is the healthy blood pressure range that can be maintained through diet. Also, by reducing intake of alcohol. Stress may sometimes lead to heart disease and hence requires control. An individual must have healthy blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and maintain a balanced diet. He/she then is at lower exposure to heart diseases. Therefore, some of the common symptoms in heart diseases are a pain in the chest, weakening of muscles of limbs, abdominal pain, reduction in body weight, fainting, mental confusion, etc.

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